.. _fmpz-factor:
**fmpz_factor.h** -- integer factorisation
===============================================================================
Description.
Types, macros and constants
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
.. type:: fmpz_factor_struct
.. type:: fmpz_factor_t
Description.
Factoring integers
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
An integer may be represented in factored form using the
``fmpz_factor_t`` data structure. This consists of two ``fmpz``
vectors representing bases and exponents, respectively. Canonically,
the bases will be prime numbers sorted in ascending order and the
exponents will be positive.
A separate ``int`` field holds the sign, which may be `-1`, `0` or `1`.
.. function:: void fmpz_factor_init(fmpz_factor_t factor)
Initialises an ``fmpz_factor_t`` structure.
.. function:: void fmpz_factor_clear(fmpz_factor_t factor)
Clears an ``fmpz_factor_t`` structure.
.. function:: void _fmpz_factor_append_ui(fmpz_factor_t factor, mp_limb_t p, ulong exp)
Append a factor `p` to the given exponent to the
``fmpz_factor_t`` structure ``factor``.
.. function:: void _fmpz_factor_append(fmpz_factor_t factor, const fmpz_t p, ulong exp)
Append a factor `p` to the given exponent to the
``fmpz_factor_t`` structure ``factor``.
.. function:: void fmpz_factor(fmpz_factor_t factor, const fmpz_t n)
Factors `n` into prime numbers. If `n` is zero or negative, the
sign field of the ``factor`` object will be set accordingly.
.. function:: int fmpz_factor_smooth(fmpz_factor_t factor, const fmpz_t n, slong bits, int proved)
Factors `n` into prime numbers up to approximately the given number of
bits and possibly one additional cofactor, which may or may not be prime.
If the number is definitely factored fully, the return value is `1`,
otherwise the final factor (which may have exponent greater than `1`)
is composite and needs to be factored further.
If the number has a factor of around the given number of bits, there is
at least a two-thirds chance of finding it. Smaller factors should be
found with a much higher probability.
The amount of time spent factoring can be controlled by lowering or
increasing ``bits``. However, the quadratic sieve may be faster if
``bits`` is set to more than one third of the number of bits of `n`.
The function uses trial factoring up to ``bits = 15``, followed by
a primality test and a perfect power test to check if the factorisation
is complete. If ``bits`` is at least 16, it proceeds to use the
elliptic curve method to look for larger factors.
The behavior of primality testing is determined by the ``proved``
parameter:
If ``proved`` is set to `1` the function will prove all factors prime
(other than the last factor, if the return value is `0`).
If ``proved`` is set to `0`, the function will only check that factors are
probable primes.
If ``proved`` is set to `-1`, the function will not test primality
after performing trial division. A perfect power test is still performed.
As an exception to the rules stated above, this function will call
``n_factor`` internally if `n` or the remainder after trial division
is smaller than one word, guaranteeing a complete factorisation.
.. function:: void fmpz_factor_si(fmpz_factor_t factor, slong n)
Like ``fmpz_factor``, but takes a machine integer `n` as input.
.. function:: int fmpz_factor_trial_range(fmpz_factor_t factor, const fmpz_t n, ulong start, ulong num_primes)
Factors `n` into prime factors using trial division. If `n` is
zero or negative, the sign field of the ``factor`` object will be
set accordingly.
The algorithm starts with the given start index in the ``flint_primes``
table and uses at most ``num_primes`` primes from that point.
The function returns 1 if `n` is completely factored, otherwise it returns
`0`.
.. function:: int fmpz_factor_trial(fmpz_factor_t factor, const fmpz_t n, slong num_primes)
Factors `n` into prime factors using trial division. If `n` is
zero or negative, the sign field of the ``factor`` object will be
set accordingly.
The algorithm uses the given number of primes, which must be in the range
`[0, 3512]`. An exception is raised if a number outside this range is
passed.
The function returns 1 if `n` is completely factored, otherwise it returns
`0`.
The final entry in the factor struct is set to the cofactor after removing
prime factors, if this is not `1`.
.. function:: void fmpz_factor_refine(fmpz_factor_t res, const fmpz_factor_t f)
Attempts to improve a partial factorization of an integer by "refining"
the factorization ``f`` to a more complete factorization ``res``
whose bases are pairwise relatively prime.
This function does not require its input to be in canonical form,
nor does it guarantee that the resulting factorization will be canonical.
.. function:: void fmpz_factor_expand_iterative(fmpz_t n, const fmpz_factor_t factor)
Evaluates an integer in factored form back to an ``fmpz_t``.
This currently exponentiates the bases separately and multiplies
them together one by one, although much more efficient algorithms
exist.
.. function:: int fmpz_factor_pp1(fmpz_t factor, const fmpz_t n, ulong B1, ulong B2_sqrt, ulong c)
Use Williams' `p + 1` method to factor `n`, using a prime bound in
stage 1 of ``B1`` and a prime limit in stage 2 of at least the square
of ``B2_sqrt``. If a factor is found, the function returns `1` and
``factor`` is set to the factor that is found. Otherwise, the function
returns `0`.
The value `c` should be a random value greater than `2`. Successive
calls to the function with different values of `c` give additional
chances to factor `n` with roughly exponentially decaying probability
of finding a factor which has been missed (if `p+1` or `p-1` is not
smooth for any prime factors `p` of `n` then the function will
not ever succeed).
.. function:: int fmpz_factor_pollard_brent_single(fmpz_t p_factor, fmpz_t n_in, fmpz_t yi, fmpz_t ai, mp_limb_t max_iters)
Pollard Rho algorithm for integer factorization. Assumes that the `n` is
not prime. ``factor`` is set as the factor if found. Takes as input the initial
value `y`, to start polynomial evaluation and `a`, the constant of the polynomial
used. It is not assured that the factor found will be prime. Does not compute
the complete factorization, just one factor. Returns the number of limbs of
factor if factorization is successful (non trivial factor is found), else returns 0.
``max_iters`` is the number of iterations tried in process of finding the cycle.
If the algorithm fails to find a non trivial factor in one call, it tries again
(this time with a different set of random values).
.. function:: int fmpz_factor_pollard_brent(fmpz_t factor, flint_rand_t state, fmpz_t n, mp_limb_t max_tries, mp_limb_t max_iters)
Pollard Rho algorithm for integer factorization. Assumes that the `n` is
not prime. ``factor`` is set as the factor if found. It is not assured that the
factor found will be prime. Does not compute the complete factorization,
just one factor. Returns the number of limbs of factor if factorization is
successful (non trivial factor is found), else returns 0.
``max_iters`` is the number of iterations tried in process of finding the cycle.
If the algorithm fails to find a non trivial factor in one call, it tries again
(this time with a different set of random values). This process is repeated a
maximum of ``max_tries`` times.
The algorithm used is a modification of the original Pollard Rho algorithm,
suggested by Richard Brent. It can be found in the paper available at
https://maths-people.anu.edu.au/~brent/pd/rpb051i.pdf
Elliptic curve (ECM) method
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Factoring of ``fmpz`` integers using ECM
.. function:: void fmpz_factor_ecm_init(ecm_t ecm_inf, mp_limb_t sz)
Initializes the ``ecm_t`` struct. This is needed in some functions
and carries data between subsequent calls.
.. function:: void fmpz_factor_ecm_clear(ecm_t ecm_inf)
Clears the ``ecm_t`` struct.
.. function:: void fmpz_factor_ecm_addmod(mp_ptr a, mp_ptr b, mp_ptr c, mp_ptr n, mp_limb_t n_size)
Sets `a` to `(b + c)` ``%`` `n`. This is not a normal add mod function,
it assumes `n` is normalized (highest bit set) and `b` and `c` are reduced
modulo `n`.
Used for arithmetic operations in ``fmpz_factor_ecm``.
.. function:: void fmpz_factor_ecm_submod(mp_ptr x, mp_ptr a, mp_ptr b, mp_ptr n, mp_limb_t n_size)
Sets `x` to `(a - b)` ``%`` `n`. This is not a normal subtract mod
function, it assumes `n` is normalized (highest bit set)
and `b` and `c` are reduced modulo `n`.
Used for arithmetic operations in ``fmpz_factor_ecm``.
.. function:: void fmpz_factor_ecm_double(mp_ptr x, mp_ptr z, mp_ptr x0, mp_ptr z0, mp_ptr n, ecm_t ecm_inf)
Sets the point `(x : z)` to two times `(x_0 : z_0)` modulo `n` according
to the formula
.. math ::
x = (x_0 + z_0)^2 \cdot (x_0 - z_0)^2 \mod n,
.. math ::
z = 4 x_0 z_0 \left((x_0 - z_0)^2 + 4a_{24}x_0z_0\right) \mod n.
``ecm_inf`` is used just to use temporary ``mp_ptr``'s in the
structure. This group doubling is valid only for points expressed in
Montgomery projective coordinates.
.. function:: void fmpz_factor_ecm_add(mp_ptr x, mp_ptr z, mp_ptr x1, mp_ptr z1, mp_ptr x2, mp_ptr z2, mp_ptr x0, mp_ptr z0, mp_ptr n, ecm_t ecm_inf)
Sets the point `(x : z)` to the sum of `(x_1 : z_1)` and `(x_2 : z_2)`
modulo `n`, given the difference `(x_0 : z_0)` according to the formula
.. math ::
x = 4z_0(x_1x_2 - z_1z_2)^2 \mod n, \\ z = 4x_0(x_2z_1 - x_1z_2)^2 \mod n.
``ecm_inf`` is used just to use temporary ``mp_ptr``'s in the
structure. This group addition is valid only for points expressed in
Montgomery projective coordinates.
.. function:: void fmpz_factor_ecm_mul_montgomery_ladder(mp_ptr x, mp_ptr z, mp_ptr x0, mp_ptr z0, mp_limb_t k, mp_ptr n, ecm_t ecm_inf)
Montgomery ladder algorithm for scalar multiplication of elliptic points.
Sets the point `(x : z)` to `k(x_0 : z_0)` modulo `n`.
``ecm_inf`` is used just to use temporary ``mp_ptr``'s in the
structure. Valid only for points expressed in Montgomery projective
coordinates.
.. function:: int fmpz_factor_ecm_select_curve(mp_ptr f, mp_ptr sigma, mp_ptr n, ecm_t ecm_inf)
Selects a random elliptic curve given a random integer ``sigma``,
according to Suyama's parameterization. If the factor is found while
selecting the curve, the number of limbs required to store the factor
is returned, otherwise `0`.
It could be possible that the selected curve is unsuitable for further
computations, in such a case, `-1` is returned.
Also selects the initial point `x_0`, and the value of `(a + 2)/4`, where `a`
is a curve parameter. Sets `z_0` as `1`. All these are stored in the
``ecm_t`` struct.
The curve selected is of Montgomery form, the points selected satisfy the
curve and are projective coordinates.
.. function:: int fmpz_factor_ecm_stage_I(mp_ptr f, const mp_limb_t *prime_array, mp_limb_t num, mp_limb_t B1, mp_ptr n, ecm_t ecm_inf)
Stage I implementation of the ECM algorithm.
``f`` is set as the factor if found. ``num`` is number of prime numbers
`\le` the bound ``B1``. ``prime_array`` is an array of first ``B1``
primes. `n` is the number being factored.
If the factor is found, number of words required to store the factor is
returned, otherwise `0`.
.. function:: int fmpz_factor_ecm_stage_II(mp_ptr f, mp_limb_t B1, mp_limb_t B2, mp_limb_t P, mp_ptr n, ecm_t ecm_inf)
Stage II implementation of the ECM algorithm.
``f`` is set as the factor if found. ``B1``, ``B2`` are the two
bounds. ``P`` is the primorial (approximately equal to `\sqrt{B2}`).
`n` is the number being factored.
If the factor is found, number of words required to store the factor is
returned, otherwise `0`.
.. function:: int fmpz_factor_ecm(fmpz_t f, mp_limb_t curves, mp_limb_t B1, mp_limb_t B2, flint_rand_t state, fmpz_t n_in)
Outer wrapper function for the ECM algorithm. In case ``f`` can fit
in a single unsigned word, a call to ``n_factor_ecm`` is made.
The function calls stage I and II, and
the precomputations (builds ``prime_array`` for stage I,
``GCD_table`` and ``prime_table`` for stage II).
``f`` is set as the factor if found. ``curves`` is the number of
random curves being tried. ``B1``, ``B2`` are the two bounds or
stage I and stage II. `n` is the number being factored.
If a factor is found in stage I, `1` is returned.
If a factor is found in stage II, `2` is returned.
If a factor is found while selecting the curve, `-1` is returned.
Otherwise `0` is returned.