longlong.h – support functions for multi-word arithmetic

Leading and trailing zeroes


Returns the number of zero-bits from the msb to the first non-zero bit in the limb \(x\). This is the number of steps \(x\) needs to be shifted left to set the most significant bit in \(x\). If \(x\) is zero then the return value is undefined.


As for flint_clz(), but counts from the least significant end. If \(x\) is zero then the return value is undefined.

Addition and subtraction


When aliasing inputs with outputs in these addition and subtraction macros, make sure to have \(s_{i}\) aliased with \(a_{i}\) for addition macros, and \(d_{i}\) aliased with \(m_{i}\) for optimal performance. Moreover, keep immediates (in other words, constants known to the compiler) in the \(b_{i}\) variables for addition and \(s_{i}\) for subtraction.

add_ssaaaa(s1, s0, a1, a0, b1, b0)

Sets \(s_1\) and \(s_0\) according to \(c B^2 + s_1 B + s_0 = (a_1 B + a_0) + (b_1 B + b_0)\), where \(B = 2^{\mathtt{FLINT\_BITS}}\) is the base, and \(c\) is the carry from the addition which is not stored anywhere.

add_sssaaaaaa(s2, s1, s0, a2, a1, a0, b2, b1, b0)

Works like add_ssaaaa, but for two three-limbed integers. Carry is lost.

sub_ddmmss(d1, d0, m1, m0, s1, s0)

Sets \(d_1\) and \(d_0\) to the difference between the two-limbed integers \(m_1 B + m_0\) and \(s_1 B + s_0\), where \(B = 2^{\mathtt{FLINT\_BITS}}\). Borrow from the subtraction is not stored anywhere.

sub_dddmmmsss(d2, d1, d0, m2, m1, m0, s2, s1, s0)

Works like sub_dddmmmsss, but for two three-limbed integers. Borrow is lost.


umul_ppmm(p1, p0, u, v)

Computes \(p_1 B + p0 = u v\), where \(B = 2^{\mathtt{FLINT\_BITS}}\).

smul_ppmm(p1, p0, u, v)

Works like umul_ppmm but for signed numbers.


udiv_qrnnd(q, r, n1, n0, d)

Computes the non-negative integers \(q\) and \(r\) in \(d q + r = n_1 B + n_0\), where \(B = 2^{\mathtt{FLINT\_BITS}}\). Assumes that \(d < n_1\).

sdiv_qrnnd(quotient, remainder, high_numerator, low_numerator, denominator)

Works like udiv_qrnnd, but for signed numbers.

udiv_qrnnd_preinv(q, r, n1, n0, d, di)

Works like udiv_qrnnd, but takes a precomputed inverse di as computed by ::func::\(n_preinvert_limb\).



Swap the order of the bytes in the word \(x\), i.e. most significant byte becomes least significant byte, etc.