mpoly.h – support functions for multivariate polynomials

An array of type ulong * or fmpz ** is used to communicate exponent vectors. These exponent vectors must have length equal to the number of variables in the polynomial ring. The element of this exponent vector at index \(0\) corresponds to the most significant variable in the monomial ordering. For example, if the polynomial is \(7*x^2*y+8*y*z+9\) and the variables are ordered so that \(x>y>z\), the degree function will return \({2,1,1}\). Similarly, the exponent vector of the \(0\)-index term of this polynomial is \({2,1,0}\), while the \(2\)-index term has exponent vector \({0,0,0}\) and coefficient \(9\).

Orderings

ordering_t

An enumeration of supported term orderings. Currently one of ORD_LEX, ORD_DEGLEX or ORD_DEGREVLEX.

mpoly_ctx_struct
mpoly_ctx_t

An mpoly_ctx_struct is a structure holding information about the number of variables and the term ordering of an multivariate polynomial.

void mpoly_ctx_init(mpoly_ctx_t ctx, slong nvars, const ordering_t ord)

Initialize a context for specified number of variables and ordering.

void mpoly_ctx_clear(mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Clean up any spaced used by a context object.

ordering_t mpoly_ordering_randtest(flint_rand_t state)

Return a random ordering. The possibilities are ORD_LEX, ORD_DEGLEX and ORD_DEGREVLEX.

void mpoly_ctx_init_rand(mpoly_ctx_t mctx, flint_rand_t state, slong max_nvars)

Initialize a context with a random choice for the ordering.

int mpoly_ordering_isdeg(ordering_t ord)

Return 1 if the given ordering is a degree ordering (deglex or degrevlex).

int mpoly_ordering_isrev(ordering_t ord)

Return 1 if the given ordering is a reverse ordering (currently only degrevlex).

void mpoly_ordering_print(ordering_t ord)

Print a string (either “lex”, “deglex” or “degrevlex”) to standard output, corresponding to the given ordering.

Monomial arithmetic

void mpoly_monomial_add(ulong * exp_ptr, const ulong * exp2, const ulong * exp3, slong N)

Set (exp_ptr, N) to the sum of the monomials (exp2, N) and (exp3, N), assuming bits <= FLINT_BITS

void mpoly_monomial_add_mp(ulong * exp_ptr, const ulong * exp2, const ulong * exp3, slong N)

Set (exp_ptr, N) to the sum of the monomials (exp2, N) and (exp3, N).

void mpoly_monomial_sub(ulong * exp_ptr, const ulong * exp2, const ulong * exp3, slong N)

Set (exp_ptr, N) to the difference of the monomials (exp2, N) and (exp3, N), assuming bits <= FLINT_BITS

void mpoly_monomial_sub_mp(ulong * exp_ptr, const ulong * exp2, const ulong * exp3, slong N)

Set (exp_ptr, N) to the difference of the monomials (exp2, N) and (exp3, N).

int mpoly_monomial_overflows(ulong * exp2, slong N, ulong mask)

Return true if any of the fields of the given monomial (exp2, N) has overflowed (or is negative). The mask is a word with the high bit of each field set to 1. In other words, the function returns 1 if any word of exp2 has any of the nonzero bits in mask set. Assumes that bits <= FLINT_BITS.

int mpoly_monomial_overflows_mp(ulong * exp_ptr, slong N, flint_bitcnt_t bits)

Return true if any of the fields of the given monomial (exp_ptr, N) has overflowed. Assumes that bits >= FLINT_BITS.

int mpoly_monomial_overflows1(ulong exp, ulong mask)

As per mpoly_monomial_overflows with N = 1.

void mpoly_monomial_set(ulong * exp2, const ulong * exp3, slong N)

Set the monomial (exp2, N) to (exp3, N).

void mpoly_monomial_swap(ulong * exp2, ulong * exp3, slong N)

Swap the words in (exp2, N) and (exp3, N).

void mpoly_monomial_mul_ui(ulong * exp2, const ulong * exp3, slong N, ulong c)

Set the words of (exp2, N) to the words of (exp3, N) multiplied by c.

Monomial comparison

int mpoly_monomial_is_zero(const ulong * exp, slong N)

Return 1 if (exp, N) is zero.

int mpoly_monomial_equal(const ulong * exp2, const ulong * exp3, slong N)

Return 1 if the monomials (exp2, N) and (exp3, N) are equal.

void mpoly_get_cmpmask(ulong * cmpmask, slong N, slong bits, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Get the mask (cmpmask, N) for comparisons. bits should be set to the number of bits in the exponents to be compared. Any function that compares monomials should use this comparison mask.

int mpoly_monomial_lt(const ulong * exp2, const ulong * exp3, slong N, const ulong * cmpmask)

Return 1 if (exp2, N) is less than (exp3, N).

int mpoly_monomial_gt(const ulong * exp2, const ulong * exp3, slong N, const ulong * cmpmask)

Return 1 if (exp2, N) is greater than (exp3, N).

int mpoly_monomial_cmp(const ulong * exp2, const ulong * exp3, slong N, const ulong * cmpmask)

Return \(1\) if (exp2, N) is greater than, \(0\) if it is equal and \(-1\) if it is less than, (exp3, N).

Monomial divisibility

int mpoly_monomial_divides(ulong * exp_ptr, const ulong * exp2, const ulong * exp3, slong N, ulong mask)

Return 1 if the monomial (exp3, N) divides (exp2, N). If so set (exp_ptr, N) to the quotient monomial. The mask is a word with the high bit of each bit field set to 1. Assumes that bits <= FLINT_BITS.

int mpoly_monomial_divides_mp(ulong * exp_ptr, const ulong * exp2, const ulong * exp3, slong N, flint_bitcnt_t bits)

Return 1 if the monomial (exp3, N) divides (exp2, N). If so set (exp_ptr, N) to the quotient monomial. Assumes that bits >= FLINT_BITS.

int mpoly_monomial_divides1(ulong * exp_ptr, const ulong exp2, const ulong exp3, ulong mask)

As per mpoly_monomial_divides with N = 1.

int mpoly_monomial_divides_tight(slong e1, slong e2, slong * prods, slong num)

Return 1 if the monomial e2 divides the monomial e1, where the monomials are stored using factorial representation. The array (prods, num) should consist of \(1\), \(b_1\), \(b_1\times b_2, \ldots\), where the \(b_i\) are the bases of the factorial number representation.

Basic manipulation

flint_bitcnt_t mpoly_exp_bits_required_ui(const ulong * user_exp, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Returns the number of bits required to store user_exp in packed format. The returned number of bits includes space for a zeroed signed bit.

flint_bitcnt_t mpoly_exp_bits_required_ffmpz(const fmpz * user_exp, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Returns the number of bits required to store user_exp in packed format. The returned number of bits includes space for a zeroed signed bit.

flint_bitcnt_t mpoly_exp_bits_required_pfmpz(fmpz * const * user_exp, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Returns the number of bits required to store user_exp in packed format. The returned number of bits includes space for a zeroed signed bit.

void mpoly_max_fields_ui_sp(ulong * max_fields, const ulong * poly_exps, slong len, slong bits, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Compute the field-wise maximum of packed exponents from poly_exps of length len and unpack the result into max_fields. The maximums are assumed to fit a ulong.

void mpoly_max_fields_fmpz(fmpz * max_fields, const ulong * poly_exps, slong len, slong bits, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Compute the field-wise maximum of packed exponents from poly_exps of length len and unpack the result into max_fields.

void mpoly_max_degrees_tight(slong * max_exp, ulong * exps, slong len, slong * prods, slong num)

Return an array of num integers corresponding to the maximum degrees of the exponents in the array of exponent vectors (exps, len), assuming that the exponent are packed in a factorial representation. The array (prods, num) should consist of \(1\), \(b_1\), \(b_1\times b_2, \ldots\), where the \(b_i\) are the bases of the factorial number representation. The results are stored in the array max_exp, with the entry corresponding to the most significant base of the factorial representation first in the array.

int mpoly_monomial_exists(slong * index, const ulong * poly_exps, const ulong * exp, slong len, slong N, const ulong * cmpmask)

Returns true if the given exponent vector exp exists in the array of exponent vectors (poly_exps, len), otherwise, return false. If the exponent vector is found, its index into the array of exponent vectors is returned. Otherwise, index is set to the index where this exponent could be inserted to preserve the ordering. The index can be in the range [0, len]`.

void mpoly_search_monomials(slong ** e_ind, ulong * e, slong * e_score, slong * t1, slong * t2, slong *t3, slong lower, slong upper, const ulong * a, slong a_len, const ulong * b, slong b_len, slong N, const ulong * cmpmask)

Given packed exponent vectors a and b, compute a packed exponent e such that the number of monomials in the cross product a X b that are less than or equal to e is between lower and upper. This number is stored in e_store. If no such monomial exists, one is chosen so that the number of monomials is as close as possible. This function assumes that 1 is the smallest monomial and needs three arrays t1, t1, and t3 of the size as a for workspace. The parameter e_ind is set to one of t1, t1, and t3 and gives the locations of the monomials in a X b.

Setting and getting monomials

int mpoly_term_exp_fits_ui(ulong * exps, slong bits, slong n, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Return whether every entry of the exponent vector of index \(n\) in exps fits into a ulong.

int mpoly_term_exp_fits_si(ulong * exps, slong bits, slong n, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Return whether every entry of the exponent vector of index \(n\) in exps fits into a slong.

void mpoly_get_monomial_ui(ulong * exps, const ulong * poly_exps, slong bits, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Convert the packed exponent poly_exps of bit count bits to a monomial from the user’s perspective. The exponents are assumed to fit a ulong.

void mpoly_get_monomial_ffmpz(fmpz * exps, const ulong * poly_exps, flint_bitcnt_t bits, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Convert the packed exponent poly_exps of bit count bits to a monomial from the user’s perspective.

void mpoly_get_monomial_pfmpz(fmpz ** exps, const ulong * poly_exps, flint_bitcnt_t bits, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Convert the packed exponent poly_exps of bit count bits to a monomial from the user’s perspective.

void mpoly_set_monomial_ui(ulong * exp1, const ulong * exp2, slong bits, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Convert the user monomial exp2 to packed format using bits.

void mpoly_set_monomial_ffmpz(ulong * exp1, const fmpz * exp2, flint_bitcnt_t bits, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Convert the user monomial exp2 to packed format using bits.

void mpoly_set_monomial_pfmpz(ulong * exp1, fmpz * const * exp2, flint_bitcnt_t bits, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Convert the user monomial exp2 to packed format using bits.

Packing and unpacking monomials

void mpoly_pack_vec_ui(ulong * exp1, const ulong * exp2, slong bits, slong nfields, slong len)

Packs a vector exp2 into {exp1} using a bit count of bits. No checking is done to ensure that the vector actually fits into bits bits. The number of fields in each vector is nfields and the total number of vectors to unpack is len.

void mpoly_pack_vec_fmpz(ulong * exp1, const fmpz * exp2, flint_bitcnt_t bits, slong nfields, slong len)

Packs a vector exp2 into {exp1} using a bit count of bits. No checking is done to ensure that the vector actually fits into bits bits. The number of fields in each vector is nfields and the total number of vectors to unpack is len.

void mpoly_unpack_vec_ui(ulong * exp1, const ulong * exp2, slong bits, slong nfields, slong len)

Unpacks vector exp2 of bit count bits into exp1. The number of fields in each vector is nfields and the total number of vectors to unpack is len.

void mpoly_unpack_vec_fmpz(fmpz * exp1, const ulong * exp2, flint_bitcnt_t bits, slong nfields, slong len)

Unpacks vector exp2 of bit count bits into exp1. The number of fields in each vector is nfields and the total number of vectors to unpack is len.

void mpoly_repack_monomials(ulong * exps1, slong bits1, const ulong * exps2, slong bits2, slong len, const mpoly_ctx_t mctx)

Convert an array of length len of exponents exps2 packed using bits bits2 into an array exps1 using bits bits1. No checking is done to unsure that the result fits into bits bits1.

void mpoly_pack_monomials_tight(ulong * exp1, const ulong * exp2, slong len, const slong * mults, slong num, slong extra, slong bits)

Given an array of possibly packed exponent vectors exp2 of length len, where each field of each exponent vector is packed into the given number of bits, return the corresponding array of monomial vectors packed using a factorial numbering scheme. The “bases” for the factorial numbering scheme are given as an array of integers mults, the first entry of which corresponds to the field of least significance in each input exponent vector. Obviously the maximum exponent to be packed must be less than the corresponding base in mults.

The number of multipliers is given by num. The code only considers least significant num fields of each exponent vectors and ignores the rest. The number of ignored fields should be passed in extras.

void mpoly_unpack_monomials_tight(ulong * e1, ulong * e2, slong len, slong * mults, slong num, slong extra, slong bits)

Given an array of exponent vectors e2 of length len packed using a factorial numbering scheme, unpack the monomials into an array e1 of exponent vectors in standard packed format, where each field has the given number of bits. The “bases” for the factorial numbering scheme are given as an array of integers mults, the first entry of which corresponds to the field of least significance in each exponent vector.

The number of multipliers is given by num. The code only considers least significant num fields of each exponent vectors and ignores the rest. The number of ignored fields should be passed in extras.

Chunking

void mpoly_main_variable_terms1(slong * i1, slong * n1, const ulong * exp1, slong l1, slong len1, slong k, slong num, slong bits)

Given an array of exponent vectors (exp1, len1), each exponent vector taking one word of space, with each exponent being packed into the given number of bits, compute l1 starting offsets i1 and lengths n1 (which may be zero) to break the exponents into chunks. Each chunk consists of exponents have the same degree in the main variable. The index of the main variable is given by \(k\). The variables are indexed from the variable of least significance, starting from \(0\). The value l1 should be the degree in the main variable, plus one.

Chained heap functions

int _mpoly_heap_insert(mpoly_heap_s * heap, ulong * exp, void * x, slong * heap_len, slong N, const ulong * cmpmask)

Given a heap, insert a new node \(x\) corresponding to the given exponent into the heap. Heap elements are ordered by the exponent (exp, N), with the largest element at the head of the heap. A pointer to the current heap length must be passed in via heap_len. This will be updated by the function. Note that the index 0 position in the heap is not used, so the length is always one greater than the number of elements.

void _mpoly_heap_insert1(mpoly_heap1_s * heap, ulong exp, void * x, slong * heap_len, ulong maskhi)

As per _mpoly_heap_insert except that N = 1, and maskhi = cmpmask[0].

void * _mpoly_heap_pop(mpoly_heap_s * heap, slong * heap_len, slong N, ulong maskhi, ulong masklo)

Pop the head of the heap. It is cast to a void *. A pointer to the current heap length must be passed in via heap_len. This will be updated by the function. Note that the index 0 position in the heap is not used, so the length is always one greater than the number of elements. The maskhi and masklo values are zero except for degrevlex ordering, where they are as per the monomial comparison operations above.

void * _mpoly_heap_pop1(mpoly_heap1_s * heap, slong * heap_len, ulong maskhi)

As per _mpoly_heap_pop1 except that N = 1, and maskhi = cmpmask[0].